NSFileProtectionNoneare encrypted with a key derived from the device UID and the user's passcode. As a result, decryption can happen only on the device itself and requires the correct passcode.
kSecAttrAccessGroup. Access to the Keychain is managed by the
securityddaemon, which grants access according to the app's
kSecAttrAccessiblekey in the call to
SecItemUpdate. The following configurable accessibility values for kSecAttrAccessible are the Keychain Data Protection classes:
kSecAttrAccessibleAlways: The data in the Keychain item can always be accessed, regardless of whether the device is locked.
kSecAttrAccessibleAlwaysThisDeviceOnly: The data in the Keychain item can always be accessed, regardless of whether the device is locked. The data won't be included in an iCloud or local backup.
kSecAttrAccessibleAfterFirstUnlock: The data in the Keychain item can't be accessed after a restart until the device has been unlocked once by the user.
kSecAttrAccessibleAfterFirstUnlockThisDeviceOnly: The data in the Keychain item can't be accessed after a restart until the device has been unlocked once by the user. Items with this attribute do not migrate to a new device. Thus, after restoring from a backup of a different device, these items will not be present.
kSecAttrAccessibleWhenUnlocked: The data in the Keychain item can be accessed only while the device is unlocked by the user.
kSecAttrAccessibleWhenUnlockedThisDeviceOnly: The data in the Keychain item can be accessed only while the device is unlocked by the user. The data won't be included in an iCloud or local backup.
kSecAttrAccessibleWhenPasscodeSetThisDeviceOnly: The data in the Keychain can be accessed only when the device is unlocked. This protection class is only available if a passcode is set on the device. The data won't be included in an iCloud or local backup.
AccessControlFlagsdefine the mechanisms with which users can authenticate the key (
kSecAccessControlDevicePasscode: Access the item via a passcode.
kSecAccessControlBiometryAny: Access the item via one of the fingerprints registered to Touch ID. Adding or removing a fingerprint won't invalidate the item.
kSecAccessControlBiometryCurrentSet: Access the item via one of the fingerprints registered to Touch ID. Adding or removing a fingerprint will invalidate the item.
kSecAccessControlUserPresence: Access the item via either one of the registered fingerprints (using Touch ID) or default to the passcode.
kSecAccessControlBiometryCurrentSet) are protected by the Secure Enclave: The Keychain holds a token only, not the actual key. The key resides in the Secure Enclave.
kSecAttrKeyTypeto indicate the type of algorithm you want to use the key with.
kSecAttrAccessibleWhenPasscodeSetThisDeviceOnlyattribute. From iOS 9 onward you can check whether a lock screen is set, using
objectioncommand demonstrates this procedure:
NSUserDefaultswithout additional encryption.
kSecAttrAccessibleWhenPasscodeSetThisDeviceOnly. This ensures the usage of hardware-backed storage mechanisms. Make sure that the
AccessControlFlagsare set according to the security policy of the keys in the KeyChain.
kSecAttrTokenID as String: kSecAttrTokenIDSecureEnclave: this indicates that we want to use the Secure Enclave directly.):
NSUserDefaultsclass provides a programmatic interface for interacting with the default system. The default system allows an application to customize its behavior according to user preferences. Data saved by
NSUserDefaultscan be viewed in the application bundle. This class stores data in a plist file, but it's meant to be used with small amounts of data.
NSData: creates static data objects, while
NSMutableDatacreates dynamic data objects.
NSMutableDataare typically used for data storage, but they are also useful for distributed objects applications, in which data contained in data objects can be copied or moved between applications. The following are methods used to write
writeToFile: stores data as part of the
NSSearchPathForDirectoriesInDomains, NSTemporaryDirectory: used to manage file paths
NSFileManager: lets you examine and change the contents of the file system. You can use
createFileAtPathto create a file and write to it.
Core Datais a framework for managing the model layer of objects in your application. It provides general and automated solutions to common tasks associated with object life cycles and object graph management, including persistence. Core Data can use SQLite as its persistent store, but the framework itself is not a database.
PROJECT_IDkey stores the corresponding Firebase project name in GoogleService-Info.plist file.
grep -iRn "USERID".
$APP_NAME.imazing. Rename it to
Note that tools like iMazing don't copy data directly from the device. They try to extract data from the backups they create. Therefore, getting all the app data that's stored on the iOS device is impossible: not all folders are included in backups. Use a jailbroken device or repackage the app with Frida and use a tool like objection to access all the data and files.
This test is only available on macOS, as Xcode and the iOS simulator is needed.
ios plist cat plistFileName.plistcommand to inspect the plist file.
envcommand. It will print out the locations of the applications Library, Caches and Documents directories:
/var/mobile/Containers/Data/Application/<UUID>) and go to
/Library/Caches/<Bundle Identifier>. The WebKit cache is also being stored in the Cache.db file. Objection can open and interact with the database with the command
sqlite connect Cache.db, as it is a normal SQLite database.
removeAllCachedResponsesYou can call this method as follows:
An ephemeral session configuration object is similar to a default session configuration (see default), except that the corresponding session object doesn’t store caches, credential stores, or any session-related data to disk. Instead, session-related data is stored in RAM. The only time an ephemeral session writes data to disk is when you tell it to write the contents of a URL to a file.
NSLogstatements for development and debugging, then disable them before shipping the software. You can do this by adding the following code to the appropriate PREFIX_HEADER (*.pch) file:
var autocorrectionType: UITextAutocorrectionTypedetermines whether autocorrection is enabled during typing. When autocorrection is enabled, the text object tracks unknown words and suggests suitable replacements, replacing the typed text automatically unless the user overrides the replacement. The default value of this property is
UITextAutocorrectionTypeDefault, which for most input methods enables autocorrection.
var secureTextEntry: BOOLdetermines whether text copying and text caching are disabled and hides the text being entered for
UITextField. The default value of this property is
Interface Builderof Xcode and verify the states of
Secure Text Entryand
Attributes Inspectorfor the appropriate object.
textObject.autocorrectionType = UITextAutocorrectionTypeNodirective in the desired UITextFields, UITextViews, and UISearchBars. For data that should be masked, such as PINs and passwords, set
Settings > General > Reset > Reset Keyboard Dictionary.
dynamic-text.datinto the following directory (which might be different for iOS versions before 8.0):
launchd. It is the most secure and flexible implementation of IPC on iOS and should be the preferred method. It runs in the most restricted environment possible: sandboxed with no root privilege escalation and minimal file system access and network access. Two different APIs are used with XPC Services:
NSFileCoordinatorcan be used to manage and send data to and from apps via files that are available on the local file system to various processes. NSFileCoordinator methods run synchronously, so your code will be blocked until they stop executing. That's convenient because you don't have to wait for an asynchronous block callback, but it also means that the methods block the running thread.
kSecAttrAccessibleWhenPasscodeSetThisDeviceOnlyattribute is set can be decrypted only if the backup is restored to the backed up device. Someone trying to extract this Keychain data from the backup couldn't decrypt it without access to the crypto hardware inside the originating device.
Library/Application Support/are always backed up by default, you can exclude files from the backup by calling
NSURL setResourceValue:forKey:error:with the
iTunes is not available anymore from macOS Catalina onwards. Managing of an iOS device, including updates, backup and restore has been moved to the Finder app. The approach remains the same, as described above.
net.bither.plistfile which contains the
pin_codeattribute. To remove the UI lock restriction, simply delete the
pin_codeattribute and save the changes.
net.bither.plistback onto the device using the licensed version of iMazing.
net.bither.plistfile. Go ahead and rename the file giving it a plist extension so Xcode can easily open it up for you.
pin_codeattribute from the plist and save your changes. Rename the file back to the original name (i.e., without the plist extension) and perform your backup restore. When the restore is complete you'll see that Bither no longer prompts you for the PIN code when launched.
overlayImage.png) whenever the application is backgrounded, overriding the current view:
overlayImage.pngwhenever the application is backgrounded. It prevents sensitive data leaks because
overlayImage.pngwill always override the current view.
int , but not
String. Whenever you try to modify an immutable object, such as a
String, you actually create a copy and change the copy.
int, handling a complex type such as
Stringby value involves a hidden layer of objects, structures, or primitive arrays whose memory can't be directly accessed or modified. Certain types of usage may seem to create a mutable data object (and even be documented as doing so), but they actually create a mutable identifier (variable) instead of an immutable identifier (constant). For example, many think that the following results in a mutable
Stringin Swift, but this is actually an example of a variable whose complex value can be changed (replaced, not modified in place):
Dictionary), on the other hand, may be acceptable if they collect primitive data types such as
intand are defined as mutable (i.e., as variables instead of constants), in which case they are more or less equivalent to a primitive array (such as
char ). These collections provide memory management, which can result in unidentified copies of the sensitive data in memory if the collection needs to copy the underlying buffer to a different location to extend it.
NSMutableString, may also be acceptable, but these types have the same memory issue as Swift collections. Pay attention when using Objective-C collections; they hold data by reference, and only Objective-C data types are allowed. Therefore, we are looking, not for a mutable collection, but for a collection that references mutable objects.
UITextFieldas Secure Text Entry or not, it always returns data in the form of a
rabin2 -zzto extract those strings.
strings.txtin your favorite editor and dig through it to identify sensitive information.
/?) for more information and a list of options. The following shows only a subset of them:
\after starting the session with